Causes of trauma
Accidents and other distressing events happen to all of us at some time in our lives. Sometimes we take these in our stride and live through them unscathed, but some events can leave a residue that continues to affect us years later. Some examples of the causes of trauma are given in the list below:
Causes of Trauma
Our brains are immensely complex pieces of machinery, vastly more complex than the computer you might have on your desk. As a complex and delicate machine the brain is vulnerable to damage or trauma.
The brain is in fact extremely well protected - it is encased in a hard skull and surrounded by fluid to cushion it from shocks. The blood-brain barrier serves to protect it from chemical damage from substances in our blood stream, and there are mechanisms for filtering out information which threatens to overload it. Nevertheless events can occur which overwhelm these protective mechanisms, and trauma occurs.
The list above shows some of the events that can cause trauma. - it is divided into three groups - human causes which are intentional (deliberate and malicious), human causes which are unintentional (accidents, unintended consequences) and those with natural causes. Generally events in the first list are the most traumatic.
You will notice that it is very diverse, and it covers events that can happen to most people in their lives. Yet not everyone develops symptoms of trauma. This is because the likelihood of having an adverse reaction to trauma depends on many factors. One is the nature of the trauma (the degree of threat, how long it lasted, whether it was a single event or repeated, the degree of powerlessness the individual felt). The age at which a traumatic event occurred can be significant, as well as any previous traumatic experiences, how well we were able to cope, our ability to take action to protect ourselves, and the availability of post-trauma support.
Symptoms of trauma
The list above shows some of the symptoms of trauma. It covers a very wide variety of symptoms and many people will identify with one or more of these. Experiencing a single symptom does not necessarily identify trauma as the cause, but if a number of these are present, combined with having experienced some of the events in List 1, then a picture of stress due to trauma starts to emerge.
Because of the wide variety of symptoms that can arise from trauma, there is no one particular model of therapy that can claim to have all the answers. Among the psychological therapies there can be a place for counselling, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), psychotherapy and techniques such as EMDR. When there are strong somatic effects, some form of bodywork may be helpful, such as therapeutic massage, Bowen technique, and reflexology.
Some of the components of the psychological treatment of trauma which have been found helpful are:
|Maria Silvina Gioseffi||Consultant Clinical Psychologist I am a chartered clinical psychologist with 20 years of clinical experience working with children, young people, adults and families who experienced emotional, developmental, learning and mental health difficulties. I have specialised in the area of early trauma across the life span and have developed a consultation and therapeutic service for children and young people who experienced developmental trauma and their families. My areas of expertise include attachment and relationship difficulties in birth, foster and adoptive families, post-traumatic stress disorder, bereavement, anxiety, depression, chronic health problems, stress management, self-harm, family crisis, fertility problems, addictions, learning difficulties and disabilities, autistic spectrum disorders and other neurodevelopmental problems, etc. I am skilled in a variety of evidence-based therapeutic interventions such as such as attachment, psychodynamic and systemic therapies as well as Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy, play-based and mindfulness focused therapy. I am passionate about working with individuals with histories of anxiety, separation, loss, trauma and consider myself to be hopeful, knowledgeable and enthusiastic about awakening the resilience capacity of my clients through our therapeutic work. For the past 13 years I have worked in the NHS and prior to that I managed fostering, adoption and therapeutic services whilst working in a local authority. During this time I developed specialist therapeutic services for children in care, adopted children and their families, which is an area of work I gained great expertise on. Consequently, I offer consultation and training services to families, staff and organisations in this field. Apart from my clinical work, I deliver training programmes for parents, carers, adoptive parents and professionals. I am a clinical supervisor and I contribute to the training of assistant and trainee clinical psychologists at Staffordshire and Keele Universities where I am also an invited Lecturer for the Doctoral Programme. I am registered clinical psychologist with both the British Psychological Society (BPS) and the Health and Social Care Professional Council (HCPC). I am a member of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the British Psychological Society. I am thankful to my past, current and future clients for their trust and engagement as I have found these two components to be essential for any successful therapeutic work. I am confident that my psychological services will make a positive contribution to your emotional well-being and to the people you may be seeking support for. Maria Silvina Gioseffi Consultant Clinical Psychologist Qualifications 1993. DClinPsy(BPS SoE) First Class with Honours. 2001: The Institute for Management and Supervision. NVQ4 Management 2002: BPS. Graduate Member of the Society. Graduate Basis for Registration 2008: BPS. Statement of Equivalence in Clinical Psychology 2016: Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy Institute. (Full accreditation)|
|Maurice Tomkinson||Maurice Tomkinson has worked as a counsellor and psychotherapist since 1999 in Sandbach, where he founded The Hope Street Centre. He works with a full range of problems and issues, with special interests in stress, trauma and personality disorders.|
|Sandy Juric||Sandy Juric is trained to masters level in both CBT and Integrative Psychotherapy. She has 15 years experience within the NHS and private practice, and offers an approach that has the flexibility to suit individual needs.|
|Jen Rumble||Jen Rumble is a Ministry of Justice registered MIAM (Mediation information and assessment meeting) provider. Jen mediates on all issues in separation and divorce - arrangements for children and all matters concerning family finance.|
|Hope Pugh||I am a fully qualified counsellor and psychotherapist regulated by the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) working within their code of ethics so that I may work with you in a confidential and professional way.|
|Mike Johnson||Mike Johnson practices counselling and psychotherapy, with a particular interest in Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.|
|Kathy Herring||I am a psychotherapist specialising in trauma and attachment. I offer individual sessions with adults or children, sessions with child and parent together or work with parents to support their child.|
|Jessica Woolliscroft||Jessica Woolliscroft is an EMDR Europe Accredited Consultant, psychotherapist, trauma therapist, supervisor and trainer based at the Hope Street Centre.|