Causes of trauma
Accidents and other distressing events happen to all of us at some time in our lives. Sometimes we take these in our stride and live through them unscathed, but some events can leave a residue that continues to affect us years later. Some examples of the causes of trauma are given in the list below:
Causes of Trauma
Our brains are immensely complex pieces of machinery, vastly more complex than the computer you might have on your desk. As a complex and delicate machine the brain is vulnerable to damage or trauma.
The brain is in fact extremely well protected - it is encased in a hard skull and surrounded by fluid to cushion it from shocks. The blood-brain barrier serves to protect it from chemical damage from substances in our blood stream, and there are mechanisms for filtering out information which threatens to overload it. Nevertheless events can occur which overwhelm these protective mechanisms, and trauma occurs.
The list above shows some of the events that can cause trauma. - it is divided into three groups - human causes which are intentional (deliberate and malicious), human causes which are unintentional (accidents, unintended consequences) and those with natural causes. Generally events in the first list are the most traumatic.
You will notice that it is very diverse, and it covers events that can happen to most people in their lives. Yet not everyone develops symptoms of trauma. This is because the likelihood of having an adverse reaction to trauma depends on many factors. One is the nature of the trauma (the degree of threat, how long it lasted, whether it was a single event or repeated, the degree of powerlessness the individual felt). The age at which a traumatic event occurred can be significant, as well as any previous traumatic experiences, how well we were able to cope, our ability to take action to protect ourselves, and the availability of post-trauma support.
Symptoms of trauma
The list above shows some of the symptoms of trauma. It covers a very wide variety of symptoms and many people will identify with one or more of these. Experiencing a single symptom does not necessarily identify trauma as the cause, but if a number of these are present, combined with having experienced some of the events in List 1, then a picture of stress due to trauma starts to emerge.
Because of the wide variety of symptoms that can arise from trauma, there is no one particular model of therapy that can claim to have all the answers. Among the psychological therapies there can be a place for counselling, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), psychotherapy and techniques such as EMDR. When there are strong somatic effects, some form of bodywork may be helpful, such as therapeutic massage, Bowen technique, and reflexology.
Some of the components of the psychological treatment of trauma which have been found helpful are:
|Dr Sarah Gilbert||I work with people aged 18 or over (with no upper age limit) who are experiencing a variety of psychological difficulties including but not limited to anxiety, depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive compulsive (OCD) disorder.|
|Maria Silvina Gioseffi||I am a chartered clinical psychologist with 20 years of clinical experience working with children, young people, adults and families who experienced emotional, developmental, learning and mental health difficulties. I have specialised in the area of early trauma across the life span and have developed a consultation and therapeutic service for children and young people who experienced developmental trauma and their families.|
|Kathy Herring||I am a psychotherapist specialising in trauma and attachment. I offer individual sessions with adults or children, sessions with child and parent together or work with parents to support their child.|
|Hope Pugh||I am a fully qualified counsellor and psychotherapist regulated by the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) working within their code of ethics so that I may work with you in a confidential and professional way.|
|Mike Johnson||Mike Johnson practices counselling and psychotherapy, with a particular interest in Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.|
|Sandy Juric||Sandy Juric is trained to masters level in both CBT and Integrative Psychotherapy. She has 15 years experience within the NHS and private practice, and offers an approach that has the flexibility to suit individual needs.|
|Jessica Woolliscroft||Jessica Woolliscroft is an EMDR Europe Accredited Consultant, psychotherapist, trauma therapist, supervisor and trainer based at the Hope Street Centre.|
|Jen Rumble||Jen Rumble is a Ministry of Justice registered MIAM (Mediation information and assessment meeting) provider. Jen mediates on all issues in separation and divorce - arrangements for children and all matters concerning family finance.|